Animal and plant cells, cellular organelles

Animal and plant cells, cellular organelles

Eukaryotic cells contain a number of organelles.



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Amoeba proteus

Widespread heterotrophic unicellular organisms with constantly changing shapes

Euglena viridis

Unicellular eukaryotes living in freshwaters, capable of feeding autotrophically and heterotrophically.

Levels of biological organisation

This animation presents levels of biological organisation from the level of the individual organism to the level of cells.

Organisation of genetic material

Eukaryotic cells with nuclei measuring only a few micrometres may contain nearly 2 metres of DNA, coiled multiple times.

Paramecium caudatum

Common ciliated eucaryotic unicellular organisms widespread in freshwaters.


Plants are capable of converting inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) into organic sugar.

The structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

There are two basic cell types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.


Carrier of genetic information in cells.


Our gametes are haploid cells produced from diploid cells by meiosis, a special type of cell division.


Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell divides into two cells and the number of chromosomes remains unchanged.

The structure of proteins

The structure and arrangement of polypeptide chains affects the spatial structure of proteins.

Vegetative plant organs

These organs are vital for the survival and development of plants.

Bacteria (advanced)

Bacteria are unicellular organisms that have no nuclei and are a few micrometres in length.


Cereals are species of grasses cultivated for their edible grains.


Chlorophyll is a photosensitive green pigment found in plants; it absorbs light energy, thus plays a vital role in photosynthesis.

Transport processes

This animation explains active and passive transport processes occurring through cell membranes

Bacteria (spheres, rods, spirals)

Bacteria occur in a wide range of shapes, including spheres, rods and spirals.

Cellulose (C₆H₁₀O₅)n

The building material of the cell walls and fibres of plants.

Connective tissues

Connective tissues include loose and dense connective tissues, adipose tissue, blood, tendon and bone tissue.

Fat molecule

Three saturated fatty acid molecules linked to a glycerol molecule.


The animations demonstrates the structure of a typical flower.

Muscle tissues

The three types of muscle found in the human body are the smooth, the striated and the cardiac muscle.

Oil molecule

Triglycerides containing unsaturated fatty acids are liquid at room temperature.

Photosynthesis (basic)

Plants are capable of converting inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) into organic sugar.

Seeds and germination

Dicotyledons have two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), while monototyledons have only one.

Comparison of edible and poisonous mushrooms

Certain mushrooms are poisonous and can be fatal for humans when consumed, while others are edible and used widely in cooking.


Viruses consist of protein and DNA or RNA; they reprogram infected cells to produce more viruses.

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