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Caliphs, considered successors of the Prophet Muhammad, were the most important religious leaders of Islam.
Arab caliph, caliph, Muhammad, religious leader, Islam, Arabic, church, religion, Middle Ages, clothing, place of residence
A medieval glider constructed by Abbas Ibn Firnas.
The medieval Arab inventor, Hassan Al Rammah designed the world's first operating torpedo.
The ingenius water pump designed by Al-Jazari is a great example of the creativity of Medieval Arab engineers.