Hexagonal metallic lattice

Metals forming hexagonal metallic lattices are rigid and difficult to machine.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

Soap

Fatty acid molecules consist of a polar head and a non-polar tail, therefore they are suitable for removing fat stains.

Sulphurous acid (H₂SO₃)

Colourless, moderate acid, only known in aqueous solution.

Melting and freezing

During freezing hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules resulting in a crystal structure.

Producing ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas

Large-scale ammonia production requires high temperature and pressure and the presence of iron as a catalyst.

Face-centred cubic metal lattice

The face-centred cubic metal lattice allows the closest fit of metal atoms.

Formation of hydrogen molecules

Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.

Addition

Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.

Karst region (intermediate)

Karst formations include dolines and dripstones.

Polymerisation of ethene

Polymerised ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.

Ferrous metallurgy (intermediate)

Raw iron is produced from iron ore in iron smelters.

Reaction of hydrogen with oxygen

Knallgas is the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. It will explode when ignited.

Oxygen cycle

The oxygen cycle describes the movement of oxygen within its three main reservoirs.

Metals

Metal atoms form a regular lattice structure.

The phosphorus cycle

The phosphorus cycle describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Air pollution

This animation demonstrates the main sources of air pollution: agriculture, industry and urban settlements.

Carbonic acid (H₂CO₃)

Colourless, odourless liquid produced by dissolving carbon dioxide in water.

Dissolution of NaCl

Common salt is dissolved by water: polar water molecules form a coat around the ions.

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