Sulphur dioxide (SO₂)

Sulphur dioxide emission is the main cause of acid rains. It is an intermediate product in the production of sulphuric acid.

Chlorine (Cl₂)

A yellow-green toxic gas with a strong odour, one of the halogens.

Iodine (I₂)

A solid, grey substance which sublimates when heated. Its solution in alcohol is called tincture of iodine, it is a disinfectant.

Hydrogen-fluoride (HF)

One of the hydrogen halides, a highly aggressive substance - it even attacks glass.

Ammonium ion (NH₄⁺)

A compound ion generated when a proton is added to an ammonia molecule.

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)

A colourless gas with a pungent odour, its solution in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Nitrogen monoxide (Nitric oxide) (NO)

A colourless, heavier-than-air gas, an intermediate in the production of nitric acid.

Silver chloride (AgCl)

A white, crystalline compound that breaks down when affected by light.

Comparison of halogens

Halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

Silver bromide (AgBr)

A white, crystalline compound which breaks down when exposed to light.

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Common salt (or table salt) is one of the most important sodium compounds, indispensable for living organisms.

Silver iodide (AgI)

A light yellow compound formed in the reaction of silver nitrate and potassium iodide.

Permanganate ion (MnO₄⁻)

Potassium permanganate is used as a disinfectant.

Sulphuric acid (H₂SO₄)

A colourless, viscous liquid, a highly corrosive, strong acid used in several industrial processes.

Hypochlorite ion (OCl⁻)

Hypochlorite ions are formed when water is disinfected with chlorine.

Silicon dioxide (SiO₂)

A polymorphic compound, mostly found in the form of quartz.

Ozone (O₃)

An allotrope of oxygen, consisting of 3 oxygen atoms.

Sulphur trioxide (SO₃)

One of the oxides of sulphur, forms sulphuric acid with water.

Hydrogen bromide (HBr)

One of the hydrogen halides, it is used for the production of alkyl bromides.

Phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄)

It is also used as a food additive, limescale and rust remover.

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